Need specific training or a seminar on bolting practices? Francis has presented on a wide range of topics from fixed anchor standards to ethical considerations involved with fixed protection. Practical installation and bolt removal are but examples of training provided to individuals, outdoor education facilitators and climbing communities throughout climbing sites around the world.

Examples of topics include;


– Traditional versus sport climbing and risks posed by in-situ protection


–  Review of what standards are and what they cover

–  Role of standards in rock climbing

–  Review of current standards as applied to rock anchors used for climbing

–  Discussion regarding the limitations of current standards

Expansion bolts

–  Review of anchor types (samples provided for attendees to view)

–  Principle of use

–  Installation

–  Advantages and disadvantages of expansion anchors

Resin bonded anchors

–  Review of anchor types (samples provided for attendees to view)

–  Principle of use

–  Installation

–  Advantages and disadvantages of resin bonded anchors

Adhesives (resins)

–  Types

–  Key differences between adhesive type

–  Historical use to date by rock climbers

–  Basis for epoxy use

Dispensing systems

–  Review of dispensing system by type

–  Advantages and disadvantages of each system


– Review of steel grades

–  Review of titanium

–  Case Study regarding ‘Home-made’ bolts in Taiwan and implications for users

Bolt Corrosion and Failure

–  Factors that cause corrosion and/or failure

–  Review of corrosion mechanisms by type

–  Discussion regarding Stress Corrosion Cracking

–  Developments in the UIAA regarding anchor corrosion

Bolt Replacement

–  Extraction methods

–  The ‘big picture’

–  Long term economics of bolting and sustainable development